# Ibm spss statistics standard gradpack the base gradpack is not acceptable histograms and descriptive

#### Part 1: Histograms and Descriptive Statistics

Your first IBM SSPS assessment includes two sections:

- Create two histograms and provide interpretations.
- Calculate measures of central tendency and dispersion and provide interpretations.

##### Key Details and Instructions

- Submit your assessment as an attached Word document.
- Begin your assessment by creating a properly formatted APA title page. Include a reference list at the end of the document if necessary. On page 2, begin Section 1.
- Organize the narrative report with your SPSS output charts and tables integrated along with your responses to the specific requirements listed for that assessment. (See the
**Copy/Export Output Instructions**in the Resources for instructions on how to do this). - Label all tables and graphs in a manner consistent with APA style and formatting guidelines. Citations, if needed, should be included in the text as well as a reference section at the end of the report.
- For additional help in completing this assessment, refer to the
**IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Instructions: Histograms and Descriptive Statistics**document, linked in the Required Resources.

##### Section 1: Histograms and Visual Interpretation

Section 1 will include one histogram of “total” scores for all the males in the data set, and one histogram of “total” scores for all the females in the data set.

Create two histograms using the **total**and **gender**variables in your **grades.sav**data set:

- A histogram for male students.
- A histogram for female students.

Below the histograms, provide an interpretation based on your visual inspection. Correctly use all of the following terms in your discussion:

- Skew.
- Kurtosis.
- Outlier.
- Symmetry.
- Modality.

Comment on any differences between males and females regarding their total scores. Analyze the strengths and limitations of visually interpreting histograms.

##### Section 2: Calculate and Interpret Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Using the **grades.sav**file, compute descriptive statistics, including **mean, standard deviation, skewness,**** **and **kurtosis**for the following variables:

- id.
- gender.
- ethnicity.
- gpa.
- quiz3.
- total.

Below the Descriptives table, complete the following:

- Indicate which variable(s) are meaningless to interpret in terms of mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. Justify your decision.
- Next, indicate which variable(s) are meaningful to interpret. Justify your decision. For meaningful variables, specify any variables that are in the ideal range for both skewness and kurtosis.
- Specify any variables that are acceptable but not excellent.
- Specify any variables that are unacceptable. Explain your decisions.
- For all meaningful variables, report and interpret the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis).

#### Part 2: Data Screening

For this part of the assessment, respond to the following questions:

What are the goals of data screening? How can you identify and remedy the following?

- Errors in data entry.
- Outliers.
- Missing data.

#### Part 3: *z*-Scores, Type I and II Error, Null Hypothesis Testing

This IBM SPSS assessment includes three sections:

- Generate
*z*-scores for a variable in**grades.sav**and report/interpret them. - Analyze cases of Type I and Type II error.
- Analyze cases to either reject or not reject a null hypothesis.

The format of this assessment should be narrative with supporting statistical output (table and graphs) integrated into the narrative in the appropriate place (not all at the end of the document). See the **Copy/Export Output Instructions**for instructions on how to do this.

Download the **z-Scores, Type I and Type II Error, Null Hypothesis Testing Answer Template**from the Required Resources, and use the template to complete the following sections:

- Section 1:
*z*-Scores in SPSS. - Section 2: Case Studies of Type I and Type II Error.
- Section 3: Case Studies of Null Hypothesis Testing.

##### Reference

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2016). *IBM SPSS statistics 23 step by step: A simple guide and reference*(14th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

For this three-part assessment, you will create and interpret histograms and compute descriptive statistics for given variables; analyze the goals of data screening; and generate *z*-scores for variables, analyze types of error, and analyze cases to either reject or not reject a null hypothesis. You will use SPSS software and several course files to complete this assessment.

By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following areas:

- Analyze the computation, application, strengths and limitations of various statistical tests.
- Analyze the strengths and limitations of examining a distribution of scores with a histogram.
- Analyze the relevant data from the computation, interpretation, and application of
*z*-scores. - Analyze real-world application of Type I and Type II errors, and the research decisions that influence the relative risk of each.

- Analyze the decision-making process of data analysis.
- Analyze meaningful versus meaningless variables reported in descriptive statistics.
- Apply the logic of null hypothesis testing to cases.

- Interpret the results of statistical analyses.
- Interpret histogram results, including concepts of skew, kurtosis, outliers, symmetry, and modality.
- Interpret descriptive statistics for meaningful variables.

- Apply a statistical program’s procedure to data.
- Apply the appropriate SPSS procedures for creating histograms to generate relevant output.
- Apply the appropriate SPSS procedure for generating descriptive statistics to generate relevant output.
- Apply the appropriate SPSS procedures for creating
*z*-scores and descriptive statistics to generate relevant output.

- Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the identified field of study.
- Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional and consistent with expectations for members of the identified field of study.

IBM SPSS Statistics **Standard** GradPack. (The **Base** GradPack is not acceptable for use in this course.) but it **must** be version 22 or higher. Be sure to use the version that is compatible with your operating system (PC or Mac).

#### Suggested Resources

The resources provided here are optional. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid.

**Resources**

- George, D., & Mallery, P. (2016).
*IBM SPSS statistics 23 step by step: A simple guide and reference*(14th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

**Internet Resources**

- Lane, D. M. (2013).
*HyperStat online: An introductory statistics textbook and online tutorial for help in statistics courses*. Retrieved from http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat - StatSoft, Inc. (2013).
*Electronic statistics textbook*. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. Retrieved from http://www.statsoft.com/textbook *Sophia*. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.sophia.org/- Browse Sophia for tutorials that explore statistical topics.

- StatisticsLectures.com. (2012).
*Free statistics lectures*. Retrieved from http://statisticslectures.com/ - Khan Academy. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org
- This Web site offers resources covering a range of subjects, including statistics

- Hall, R. (1998). Between subjects one-way ANOVA example.
*Psychology World*. Retrieved from http://web.mst.edu/~psyworld/anovaexample.htm - Elliot, A. C. (2012). ANOVA using Microsoft Excel: One-way analysis of variance.
*Excel Tutorials for Statistical Data Analysis*. Retrieved from http://www.stattutorials.com/EXCEL/EXCEL_ANOVA.htm… - Onwuegbuzie, T. (Producer). (2009).
*Mixed methods research*[Video] | Transcript. Available from http://videolectures.net/ssmt09_onwuegbuzie_mmr

#### Preparation

This assessment has three parts, each of which is described below. Submit all three parts as Word documents.

*Note:*All the course documents you will need for the assignment are attached.

This assessment uses the **grades.sav**file. The **grades.sav**file is a sample SPSS data set that is converted from the **grades2.dat**file. (Use the **Data Set Instructions**to convert the **grades2.dat**file to the **grades.sav**file that you will use throughout this course.)

The fictional data in the **grades.sav**file represent a teacher’s recording of student demographics and performance on quizzes and a final exam across three sections of the course. Each section consists of about 35 students (N = 105).

There are 21 variables in **grades.sav**. To prepare for this assessment, complete the following:

- Open your
**grades.sav**file and navigate to the “Variable View” tab. - Read the
**Data Set Instructions**, and make sure you have the correct Values and Scales of Measurement assigned.